drown the invaders of their America

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  • n do■main. [6] [3] "C'est Dieu qui con

  • duit c■ette entreprise. La Nature n

  • 'a p●as les bras assez long

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s," etc.—Relation, 1636,■ 3. [4] Brébeuf, Relation des Hurons●, 1636, 76. [5] Le Jeune

, Relati■on, 1636, 6. Compare "Divers Sentimens●," appended to the Relation of 163■5. [6] "L'Enfer enrageant de nou●s veoir aller en la Nouuelle■ France pour conu


among religious communities of men. Th■e Jesuits regarded the field as their own, and ●desired no rivals. They looked forwar■d to the day when Canada should ●be another

Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate.

Paraguay. [8] It was to the combust■ible hearts of female recluses that the t●orch was most busily applied■; and here, accordingly, blazed f●orth a prodigious and amazing flame. "If all h●ad their pious will," writes Le Je●une, "Quebec would soon be flooded with n

●uns." [9] [8] "Que si celuy qui a escrit cette ■lettre a leu la Rela

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tion de ce qui■ se passe au Paraguais, qu'il a veu ce qui se■ fera un jour en la Nouuelle France."—Le ■Jeune, Relation, 1637, 304 (Cramoisy). [●9] Chaulmer, Le Nouveau Monde Chrestie●n, 41, is eloquent on this theme. Both Mont■magny and De Lisle were half chur

chmen, for both● were Knights of Malta. More and mo●re the powers spir

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itual engrossed the colony.■ As nearly as might be, the sword its■elf was in priestly hands. The Jesui●ts were all in all. Authority, absolute and■ without appeal, was 154 vested● in a council composed of the gov■ernor, Le Jeune, and the syndic●, an official supp

osed to re■present the interests of the inhabitants. [1■0] There was no tribunal of justice, a

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  • nd● the governor pronounced summar■ily

  • on all complaints. The church adjoi

ned t■he fort; and before it was p■lanted a stake bearing a placard with a prohib■ition against blasphemy, dru●nkenness, or neglect of mass and other relig■ious rites. To the stake was ●also attached a chain and iron co●llar; and hard by was a wooden horse, whe●

reon a culprit was now and th■en mounted by way of example an●d warnin

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g. [11] In a community so ab●solutely priest-governed, overt offences were,■ however, rare; and, except on the annual a●rrival of the ships from France, when t●he rock swarmed with godless sailors, Quebec was● a model of decorum, and wore, as its ●chroniclers tell

us, an aspect unspeakab●ly edifying. [10] Le Clerc,● établissement


de la Foy, Chap. ●XV. [11] Le Jeune, Relation, 1636, 153, ●154 (Cramoisy). In the year 1640, various new● establishments of religion and charity mi●ght have been seen at

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w in a single convent, thirt

Quebec. There was the beg●inning of a college and a seminary for Huron ch●ildren, an embryo Ursuline convent, an i

nc■ipient hospital, and a new Algon●quin mission at a place called Sil●lery, four miles distant. Champlain's for●t had been enlarged and partly rebuilt in stone■ by Montmagny, who had also laid out s●treets

een nuns have de●

on the site of the future cit●y, though as yet the streets had no houses. Be●hind the fort, and very near it, sto

od the c●hurch and a house for the Jesuits●. Both were of pine 155 wood; a■nd this year, 1640, both were bu●rned to the ground, to be afterwards rebuilt■ in stone. The Jesuits, however, contin●ued to occupy

voted them

their rude mission-house of N■otre-Dame des Anges, on the St.● Charles, where we first found them●. The country

around Quebec w●as still an unbroken wilderness, with the exce■ption of a small clearing made■ by the Sieur Giffard on his seigni■ory of Beauport, another made by M●. de Puiseaux between Quebec and Sille■r


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y, and possibly one or two ■feeble attempts in other quarters. [12] The to●tal population did not much exceed two

hundre■d, including women and children. Of this number,■ by far the greater part were a■gents of the fur company known as the Hundred■ Associates, and men in their e■mploy. Some of these had brought over the

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ir fami●lies. The remaining inhabitants we●re priests, nuns, and a very few col■onists. [12] For Giffard, Puisea

ux, and● other colonists, compare Langevin, Notes● sur les Archives de Notre-Dame de● Beauport, 5, 6, 7; Ferland,■ Notes sur les Archives de N. D. de Québec■, 22, 24 (1863); Ibid., Cours d'Histoir■e du Can


ada, I. 266; Le Jeun■e, Relation, 1636, 45; Faillon, Histoire● de la Colonie Fran?aise, I. c. iv., v. The C●ompa

ny of the Hundred Associates ■was bound by its charter to send to Canada four■ thousand colonists before the year 16■43. [13] It had neither the means■ nor the will to fulfil this engagement. Some of● its me


mbers were willing to make personal sac●rifices for promoting the missions, and buil■ding up a colony purely Catholic. Other■s thought only of the prof

its of tra●de; and the practical affair■s of the company had passed entire■ly 156 into the hands of this po■rtion of its members. They

s■ought to evade obligations the f●ulfilment of which would have ruined them. Ins■tead of sending out colonists, they granted land■s with the condition t

hat the grantees should● furnish a certain number of s■ettlers to clear and till them, and these ●were to be credited to the Company. [14]

The ●grantees took the land, but rarely f●ulfilled the condition. Some of these ●grants were corrupt and iniquit■ous. Thus, a son of Lauson, president

of the Co■mpany, received, in the name● of a third person, a tract ●of land on the south side of the St. Lawrenc●e of sixty leagues f


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ition● of selling again to the Company at ●a fixed price. He might hunt, but● he could not fish; and he was forc■ed to beg 157 or buy food for ■years before he could obtain ●it from that rude so

il in sufficient qu●antity for the wants of his family. The Company ●imported provisions every year for th

os●e in its employ; and of these supplies a p●ortion was needed for the relief ●of starving settlers. Giffard and his seven ●men on his seigniory of Beauport were fo■r some time the only settlers●—excepting, perhaps, the Hébert family—who ●could support them

selves throughout t■he year. The rigor of the climate repel●led the emigra

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nt; nor were the attraction■s which Father Le Jeune held● forth—"piety, freedom, and indep●endence"—of a nature to entice him ■across the sea, when it is remembered that ●this freedom consisted

in subjection to the arbi●trary will of a priest and a sol■dier, and in the liability, should he f■orget

to go to mass, of being made■ fast to a post with a collar and chain,■ like a dog. Aside from the f●ur trade of the Company, the whole li■fe of the colony was in missions, con■vents, religious schools, and hospitals. Here ■on the rock of Quebec were the appen?/p>

鰀ages, useful and otherwise, of an ●old-established civilization.■ While as

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he missions. "Of what■ use to the country at this pe■riod could have been two communi●ties of cloistered nuns?" asks the mo■dern historian of the Ursuline■s of Queb

ec. And he answers by citing the words ■of Pope Gregory the Great, who■, when Rome was ravaged by famine,■ pestilence, and the barbarians●, declared that his only hope was ■in the prayers of the three thousand■ nuns then assembled in the h●oly city.—Les

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amplai■n's time, the bells of the church ■rang morning, noon, and night. C■onfessions, masses, and penances were

puncti●liously observed; and, from the governor to the■ meanest laborer, the Jesuit watc●hed and guided all. The social atmosphere ●of New England itself wa

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s not more suffoca●ting. By day and by night, at hom■e, at church, or at his daily work, ●the colonist lived unde

r the● eyes of busy and over-zealous ■priests. At times, the denizens o●f Quebec grew restless. In 1639, deputies wer■e covertly sent to beg relief in Franc

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e, and "to■ represent the hell in which the con■sciences of the colony were kept by the union o■f the temporal an

d spiritual authority in the s●ame hands." [17] In 1642, partial and ■ineffective measures were ta●ken, with the co

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untenance of Richelieu, f●or introducing into New France an Order less gr●eedy of seigniories and endowments tha●

n the Jesuits, 159 and less prone to● political encroachment. [18] No favorable resul■t followed; and the colony rem

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ai■ned as before, in a pitiful state of cramping an■d dwarfing vassalage. [17] "Pour le●ur representer la gehenn

e o&■ugrave; estoient les consciences de la Colon●ie, de se voir gouverné par les mesme■s personnes pour le spirit

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uel et p●our le temporel."—Le Clerc,■ I. 478. [18] Declaration ■de Pierre Breant, par devant les Notaires ●du

Roy, MS. The Order was that of ●the Capuchins, who, like the ●Récollets, are a branch of th●e Franciscans. Their


introduction into Canada ●was prevented; but they established themselves■ in Maine. This is the view of ●a heretic. It was the aim of ●the founders of New France to

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build● on a foundation purely and supremely C■atholic. What this involved is plain; for no d■egree of personal virtue is a guara■nt

y against the evils which atta■ch to the temporal rule of ecclesiastics. B●urning with love and devotion ●to Christ and his immaculate Moth●

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  • er, the fervent and conscientiou●

  • s priest regards with mixed pity and

  • ●indignation those who fail in this su

  • pre●me allegiance. Piety and charit


y alike de●mand that he should bring back the rash wander●er to the fold of his divine Master, and snatc●h him from the perdition into which■ his guilt must otherwise plung

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    tre, a nun l

    e him. ■And while he, the priest, himself yi●elds reve

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    rence and obedience to the Supe■rior, in

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    ion; [4] how

    whom he sees the represe●ntative of Deity, it behooves hi

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    ar, prayin

    m●, in his degree, to require obedience from those■ whom he imagines that Go

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    d has confi■ded to his guidance. His consci

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    ence,■ then, acts in perfect accord with the lo●ve

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    , the

    of power innate in the human heart. These● allied forc

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    of ze

    es mingle with a perpl■exing subtlety; pride, disgu

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    of the Vis

    ised even from ■itself, walks in the likeness of love and duty●;

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    o word

    and a thousand times on the pages 160 ■of history we find Hell beguil■ing the virtues

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    of Heaven to● do its work. The instinct of dominati■on is a weed that grows rank in the shado

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    e pers

    w o■f the temple, climbs over it, posse●sses it, cover

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